Training Plan Development
The effective use of innovations requires behavior change at the teacher and administrative support levels. Training and
coaching are the principal ways in which behavior change is brought about for carefully selected staff in the beginning
stages of implementation and throughout the life of evidence-based practices and programs. Most skills needed by
successful teachers and administrators can be introduced in training but really are learned on the job with the help of a
consultant/coach (e.g., practice information, engagement, planning, teaching to concepts, fluency.)
The content of training will vary considerably depending upon the evidence-based practice or program, State or district
policy or priority, or management strategy that is being implemented.
The methods of training are less variable. There seem to be common approaches to imparting knowledge, skills, and
abilities in programs to train practitioners (e.g., Bedlington, Booth, Fixsen, & Leavitt, 1996; Joyce & Showers, 2002;
Schoenwald et al, 2000), trainers (e.g., Braukmann & Blase, 1979; Ogden et al., in press), coaches (e.g., Smart, Blase, et
al., 1979; Joyce & Showers, 2003), fidelity evaluators (Davis, Warfel, Maloney, Blase, & Fixsen, 1979; Wineman, et al.,
1979), and administrators (Baron, Watson, Coughlin, Fixsen, & Phillips, 1979; Atherton, Mbekem, & Nyalusi, 1999).
The common approaches to training include providing information about history, theory, philosophy, and rationales for
program components and practices conveyed in lecture and discussion formats. Lecture and discussion can produce
knowledge acquisition and understanding. Skills and abilities related to carrying out the program components and
practices can be demonstrated (live or on tape) then followed by behavior rehearsal to practice the skills and receive
feedback on the practice (Blase et al., 1984; Joyce & Showers, 2002; Kealey, Peterson, Gaul, & Dinh, 2000).