Likert Scale Analysis Report Sample


1. Motivation.
Likert items are used to measure respondents’ attitudes to a particular question or statement. To analyse the
data it is usually coded as follows.
1 = Strongly disagree
2 = Disagree
3 = Neutral
4 = Agree
5 = Strongly agree
One must recall that Likert-type data is ordinal data, i.e. we can only say that one score is higher than another,
not the distance between the points.
2. Basic analysis
With Likert scale data we cannot use the mean as a measure of central tendency as it has no meaning i.e.
what is the average of Stronly agree and disagree? The most appropriate measure of is the mode the most frequent
responses, or the median. The best way to display the distribution of responses i.e. (% that agree, disagree etc) is
to use a bar chart.
2.1. Inference.. To test hypotheses one must initially think carefully about the questions you are trying to
answer. Once you have identified your hypotheses, you will have a dependent variable, that which is measured and
your independent variable/s that which defines your groups.
Analysis of variance techniques include;
Mann Whitney test.
Kruskal Wallis test.
Data may also be combined into say two nominal categories Agree/Accept and Disagree/Reject, which allows
us to carry out the;
Chi-square test.
3. Likert scale.
A Likert scale is composed of a series of four or more Likert-type items that represent similar questions combined
into a single composite score/variable. Likert scale data can be analyzed as interval data, i.e. the mean is the best
measure of central tendency.
3.1. Inference.. Parametric analysis of ordinary averages of Likert scale data is justifiable by the Central Limit
Theorem, analysis of variance techniques incude;
regression procedures
4. Design considerations.
The data analysis decision for Likert items should be made at the questionnaire development stage.
If you have a series of individual questions that have Likert response options for your participants to answer
- then analyze them as Likert-type items i.e. Modes, medians, and frequencies.
If you have a series of Likert-type questions that when combined describe a personality trait or attitude -
use means and standard deviations to describe the scale.


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