APA Style: Handling Quotations, Citations, and References
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of citation. This means that the author's last name and
the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear in the
Smith (1970) compared reaction times . . .
In a recent study of reaction times (Smith, 1970), . . .
In 1970, Smith compared reaction times . . .
To indicate short quotations (fewer than 40 words) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation
marks. Provide the author, year, and specific page citation in the text, and include a complete reference in the
reference list. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical
citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the
quotation but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text. When paraphrasing, the citation (author
and page number) must still be included. Paraphrasing is preferred over direct quoting.
She stated, "The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Miele, 1993, p. 276),
but she did not clarify which behaviors were studied.
According to Miele (1993), "The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (p.
Miele (1993) found that "the placebo effect disappeared" in this case (p. 276), but what will the next step in
researching this issue be?
Place quotations longer than 40 words in a freestanding block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.
Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new
margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.
Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after closing punctuation mark.
Miele's 1993 study found the following: The placebo effect disappeared when behaviors were studied in this
manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered.
Earlier studies conducted by the same group of researchers at the hospital were clearly premature in attributing
the results to a placebo effect. (p. 276)
Your Reference List
Your reference list should appear at the end of your essay. It provides the information necessary for a reader to
locate and retrieve any source you cite in the essay. Each source you cite in the essay must appear in your reference
list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
The first line of each entry in your reference list should be on the left margin. Subsequent lines should be
indented five spaces from the margin. All references should be double-spaced. Capitalize only the first word of a
title or subtitle of a work. Italicize titles of books and journals. Note that the italicizing in these entries often
continues beneath commas and periods. Each entry is separated from the next by a double space (thus the entire
reference list is double spaced, with no extra returns added). Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give last
name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Your reference list should be alphabetized by authors' last
names. If you have more than one work by a particular author, order them by publication date, oldest to newest (thus
a 1991 article would appear before a 1996 article). When an author appears as a sole author and as the first author of
Selected by the Writing Center at Armstrong Atlantic State University, the examples in this handout are based on the 5th edition
of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (August 2001).