APA Style: Handling Quotations, Citations, and References
An online journal article
Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention &
Treatment, 3 Article 001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from
A web page
Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F. & Nix, D. H. (1993.) Technology and education: New wine in new bottles:
Choosing pasts and imagining educational futures. Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University,
Institute for Learning Technologies Web site:
On Footnotes and Endnotes
Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers, most academic style guidelines (including MLA
and APA) recommend limited use of footnotes/endnotes. An exception is Chicago-style documentation, which relies
on notes for all citations as well as explanatory notes. But even in that case, extensive discursive notes are
discouraged. Proper use of notes would include:
Evaluative bibliographic comments:
See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters three and four, for an insightful analysis of this trend.
On the problems related to repressed memory recovery, see Wollens (1989) pp. 120- 35; for a contrasting view,
see Pyle (1992).
Occasional explanatory notes or other brief additional information that would seem digressive if included in the
main text but might be interesting to readers:
In a recent interview, she reiterated this point even more strongly: "I am an artist, not a politician!" (Weller,
1998, p. 124).
Footnotes in APA format are indicated by consecutive superscript arabic numbers in the text. The notes
themselves are listed by consecutive superscript arabic numbers and appear double-spaced in regular paragraph
format (a new paragraph for each note) on a separate page under the word Footnotes (centered, in plain text without
Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5 X 11 inches) with margins of 1 inch on
all sides. Your final essay should include as many of the following sections as are applicable--abstract, text,
references, appendices, author identification notes, footnotes, tables, figure captions, figures. Each section should
begin on a separate page.
The title page includes a running head for publication on the first line of the page flush left, a manuscript page
header with page number in the top right corner (a half inch from the top of the page on this and every other page),
the title, author's name, and institutional affiliation, centered. If the essay is for an academic course and is not
intended for publication, you may omit the running head notice. Otherwise, the running head notice on the first line
of the page serves to notify editors of a shortened version of your title to be used at the top of each page in the final
published version of the essay. This shortened title should not exceed 50 characters, including punctuation and
The pages of your manuscript should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page, as part of the
manuscript header in the upper right corner of each page. Your references should begin on a separate page from the
text of the essay under the label References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the
page. Appendices and notes should be formatted similarly. Keep in mind that underlining and italics are equivalent
only when there is no italics option on your computer. Italics are now preferred over underlining.
Selected by the Writing Center at Armstrong Atlantic State University, the examples in this handout are based on the 5th edition
of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (August 2001).